EC2 - For Architects - Certified Associate - AWS Certification


Let’s get a quick overview of EC2 from an AWS Architects certification perspective. We will look at important certification questions regarding EC2 Architecture.

You will learn

  • What are the important factors about EC2 from an architecture stand point?
  • How do you scale EC2 instances?

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EC2 & ELB for Architects

It is not sufficient to get things working. We want more!

  • High Availability
  • High Scalability
  • Improve Performance
  • Improve Security
  • Low Costs
  • and …..

We want all these for our architectures using EC2 and ELB services.

Let’s start with understanding the basics of Availability.

Availability

Availability is all about this question - Are the applications available when the users need them?

It is the Percentage of time an application provides the operations expected of it

Example: 99.99% availability. Also called four 9’s availability

Availability Table

Here’s a table showing availability and the downtime mapping:

Availability Downtime (in a month) Comment
99.95% 22 minutes  
99.99% (four 9’s) 4 and 1/2 minutes Most online apps aim for 99.99% (four 9’s)
99.999% (five 9’s) 26 seconds Achieving 5 9’s availability is tough

Availability Basics - EC2 and ELB

Let’s now look at how we can make EC2 instances highly available:

  • Deploy to multiple AZs
  • Use Cross Zone Load Balancing
  • Deploy to multiple regions
  • Configure proper EC2 and ELB health checks

The diagram below shows a simple example.

Scalability

What is Scalability?

A system is handling 1000 transactions per second. Load is expected to increase 10 times in the next month.

Two important questions to ask

  • Can we handle a growth in users, traffic, or data size without any drop in performance?
  • Does ability to serve more growth increase proportionally with resources?

Scalability is the ability to adapt to changes in demand (users, data).

For EC2 instances, what are the options that can be considered to scale it?

  • Deploy to a bigger instance with bigger CPU and more memory
  • Increase the number of application instances and setup a load balancer

Let’s look at the two types of scalability:

  • Vertical Scalability
  • Horizontal Scalability

Vertical Scaling

Vertical Scaling is all about deploying application/database to bigger instance:

  • A larger hard drive
  • A faster CPU
  • More RAM, CPU, I/O, or networking capabilities

There are limits to what you can achieve with vertical scaling.

Vertical Scaling for EC2

What does Vertical Scaling for EC2 instances look like?

  • Increasing EC2 instance size:
    • t2.micro to t2.small or
    • t2.small to t2.2xlarge or

Horizontal Scaling

What is Horizontal Scaling?

Horizontal Scaling is all about deploying multiple instances of application/database.

Horizontal Scaling is preferred to Vertical Scaling:

  • Vertical scaling has limits
  • Vertical scaling can be expensive
  • Horizontal scaling increases availability

However, Horizontal Scaling needs additional infrastructure: - Load Balancers etc.

Horizontal Scaling for EC2

How can you implement Horizontal Scaling for EC2 instances?

  • Distribute EC2 instances
    • in a single AZ
    • in multiple AZs in single region
    • in multiple AZs in multiple regions
  • Auto scale: Auto Scaling Group
  • Distribute load : Elastic Load Balancer, Route53

Architecture Considerations for EC2 and ELB

Here are some the Architecture Considerations for EC2 and ELB:

Security
  • Use Security Groups to restrict traffic
  • Place EC2 instances in private subnets
  • Use Dedicated Hosts when you have regulatory needs
Performance
  • Choose right instance family (Optimized combination of compute, memory, disk (storage) and networking)
  • Use appropriate placement groups
  • Prefer creating an custom AMI to installing software using userdata
Cost Efficiency
  • Have optimal number and type of EC2 instances running
  • Use the right mix of:
    • Savings Plans
    • Reserved Instances
    • On demand Instances
    • Spot Instances
Resiliency
  • Configure the right health checks
  • Use CloudWatch for monitoring
  • (Disaster recovery) Upto date AMI copied to multiple regions

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Certification - Recommended Reading

Amazon RDS - Relational Database Service and Amazon Aurora

Multi-AZ vs Multi-Region vs Read replicas - Amazon RDS

Database Primer - Availability vs Durability vs RTO vs RPO vs Consistency

Migrating databases in AWS - Data Pipeline vs DMS vs SCT

Amazon RedShift vs RedShift Spectrum vs Amazon EMR - A comparison

AWS Data Lakes - Simplified Big Data Solutions

Amazon RedShift - Big Data in AWS

Amazon Cognito - User Pools, Identity Pools

Amazon S3 Storage Classes - Standard vs Standard-IA vs One Zone vs Intelligent-Tiering vs Glacier

Amazon S3 Glacier - vs Amazon S3

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