Choosing AWS Databases - RDS vs DynamoDB vs Redshift - AWS Certification


Let’s get a quick overview of how you can choose between different AWS Databases. How do you choose RDS vs DynamoDB vs Redshift?

You will learn

  • What are the different types of databases?
  • How can you choose the right AWS database for your scenario?
  • What are the differences between RDS vs DynamoDB vs Redshift?
  • When do you use RDS vs DynamoDB vs Redshift?

AWS Certification - 25 PDF Cheat Sheets + Free Course

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  • Certification Exam Tips
  • Certification and Interview Scenario Questions
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Database Categories

  • There are several categories of databases:
    • Relational (OLTP and OLAP), Document, Key Value, Graph, In Memory among others
  • Choosing type of database for your use case is not easy. A few factors:
    • Do you want a fixed schema?
      • Do you want flexibility in defining and changing your schema? (schemaless)
    • What level of transaction properties do you need? (atomicity and consistency)
    • What kind of latency do you want? (seconds, milliseconds or microseconds)
    • How many transactions do you expect? (hundreds or thousands or millions of transactions per second)
    • How much data will be stored? (MBs or GBs or TBs or PBs)
    • and a lot more…

Relational Databases

Database

  • This was the only option until a decade back!
  • Most popular (or unpopular) type of databases
  • Predefined schema with tables and relationships
  • Very strong transactional capabilities
  • Used for
    • OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) use cases and
    • OLAP (Online Analytics Processing) use cases

Relational Database - OLTP (Online Transaction Processing)

  • Applications where large number of users make large number of small transactions
    • small data reads, updates and deletes
  • Use cases:
    • Most traditional applications, ERP, CRM, e-commerce, banking applications
  • Popular databases:
    • MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server etc
  • Recommended AWS Managed Service:
    • Amazon RDS
    • Supports Amazon Aurora, PostgreSQL, MySQL, MariaDB (Enhanced MySQL), Oracle Database, and SQL Server

Relational Database - OLAP (Online Analytics Processing)

  • Applications allowing users to analyze petabytes of data
    • Examples : Reporting applications, Data ware houses, Business intelligence applications, Analytics systems
    • Sample application : Decide insurance premiums analyzing data from last hundred years
    • Data is consolidated from multiple (transactional) databases
  • Recommended AWS Managed Service
    • Amazon Redshift
    • Petabyte-scale distributed data ware house based on PostgreSQL

Relational Databases - OLAP vs OLTP

Database Database

  • OLAP and OLTP use similar data structures
  • BUT very different approach in how data is stored
  • OLTP databases use row storage
    • Each table row is stored together
    • Efficient for processing small transactions
  • OLAP databases use columnar storage
    • Each table column is stored together
    • High compression - store petabytes of data efficiently
    • Distribute data - one table in multiple cluster nodes
    • Execute single query across multiple nodes - Complex queries can be executed efficiently

Document Database

  • Structure data the way your application needs it
  • Create one table instead of dozens!
  • Quickly evolving semi structured data (schema-less)
  • Use cases : Content management, catalogs, user profiles
  • Advantages : (Horizontally) Scalable to terabytes of data with millisecond responses upto millions of transactions per second
  • Recommended AWS Managed Service
    • Amazon DynamoDB

Key-value

Database Database

  • Use a simple key-value pair to store data. Key is a unique identifier.
  • Values can be objects, compound objects or simple data values
  • Advantages : (Horizontally) Scalable to terabytes of data with millisecond responses upto millions of transactions per second
  • Recommended AWS Managed Service - Amazon DynamoDB again
  • Use cases : shopping carts, session stores, gaming applications and very high traffic web apps

Graph

Database

  • Store and navigate data with complex relationships
  • Use cases : Social Networking Data (Twitter, Facebook), Fraud Detection
  • Recommended AWS Managed Service - Amazon Neptune

In-memory Databases

  • Retrieving data from memory is much faster from retrieving data from disk
  • In-memory databases like Redis deliver microsecond latency by storing persistent data in memory
  • Recommended AWS Managed Service
    • Amazon ElastiCache
    • Supports Redis and Memcached
      • Redis is recommended for persistent data
      • Memcached is recommended for simple caches
  • Use cases : Caching, session management, gaming leader boards, geospatial applications

AWS Databases - Summary

Database Type AWS Service Description
Relational OLTP databases Amazon RDS Row storage
Transactional usecases needing predefined schema and very strong transactional capabilities
Relational OLAP databases Amazon Redshift Columnar storage
Reporting, analytics & intelligence apps needing predefined schema
Document & Key Databases Amazon DynamoDB Apps needing quickly evolving semi structured data (schema-less)
Scale to terabytes of data with millisecond responses upto millions of TPS
Content management, catalogs, user profiles, shopping carts, session stores and gaming applications
Graph Databases Amazon Neptune Store and navigate data with complex relationships
Social Networking Data (Twitter, Facebook), Fraud Detection
In memory databases/caches Amazon ElastiCache Applications needing microsecond responses
Redis - persistent data
Memcached - simple caches

AWS Databases - Interview and Certification Questions

Scenario Solution
A start up with quickly evolving tables DynamoDB
Transaction application needing to process million transactions per second DynamoDB
Very high consistency of data is needed while processing thousands of transactions per second RDS
Cache data from database for a web application Amazon ElastiCache
Relational database for analytics processing of petabytes of data Amazon Redshift

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